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Simvastatin - Prescription Drug Labeling

Product NDC Code 60760-019
Drug Name

Simvastatin

Type Generic
Pharm Class HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor [EPC],
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors [MoA]
Active Ingredients
Simvastatin 80 mg/1
Route ORAL
Dosage Form TABLET, FILM COATED
RxCUI drug identifier 198211,
200345,
312961
Application Number ANDA078155
Labeler Name St Marys Medical Park Pharmacy
Packages
Package NDC Code Description
60760-019-30 30 tablet, film coated in 1 bottle, plastic (60760-019-30)

Overdosage of simvastatin

Information about signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings of acute ovedosage and the general principles of overdose treatment.
10. OVERDOSAGE Significant lethality was observed in mice after a single oral dose of 9 g/m 2 . No evidence of lethality was observed in rats or dogs treated with doses of 30 and 100 g/m 2 , respectively. No specific diagnostic signs were observed in rodents. At these doses the only signs seen in dogs were emesis and mucoid stools. A few cases of overdosage with simvastatin tablets have been reported; the maximum dose taken was 3.6 g. All patients recovered without sequelae. Supportive measures should be taken in the event of an overdose. The dialyzability of simvastatin and its metabolites in man is not known at present.

Adverse reactions

Information about undesirable effects, reasonably associated with use of the drug, that may occur as part of the pharmacological action of the drug or may be unpredictable in its occurrence. Adverse reactions include those that occur with the drug, and if applicable, with drugs in the same pharmacologically active and chemically related class. There is considerable variation in the listing of adverse reactions. They may be categorized by organ system, by severity of reaction, by frequency, by toxicological mechanism, or by a combination of these.
6. ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥5.0%) are: upper respiratory infection, headache, abdominal pain, constipation, and nausea. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Accord Healthcare Inc. at 1-866-941-7875 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In the pre-marketing controlled clinical studies and their open extensions (2,423 patients with median duration of follow-up of approximately 18 months), 1.4% of patients were discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation were: gastrointestinal disorders (0.5%), myalgia (0.1%), and arthralgia (0.1%). The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥5%) in simvastatin controlled clinical trials were: upper respiratory infections (9.0%), headache (7.4%), abdominal pain (7.3%), constipation (6.6%), and nausea (5.4%). Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study In 4S involving 4,444 (age range 35 to 71 years, 19% women, 100% Caucasians) treated with 20 to 40 mg/day of simvastatin tablets (n=2,221) or placebo (n=2,223) over a median of 5.4 years, adverse reactions reported in ≥2% of patients and at a rate greater than placebo are shown in Table 2. TABLE 2: Adverse Reactions Reported Regardless of Causality by ≥2% of Patients Treated with simvastatin tablets and Greater than Placebo in 4S Simvastatin Tablets (N = 2,221) % Placebo (N = 2,223) % Body as a Whole Edema/swelling Abdominal pain 2.7 5.9 2.3 5.8 Cardiovascular System Disorders Atrial fibrillation 5.7 5.1 Digestive System Disorders Constipation Gastritis 2.2 4.9 1.6 3.9 Endocrine Disorders Diabetes mellitus 4.2 3.6 Musculoskeletal Disorders Myalgia 3.7 3.2 Nervous System / Psychiatric Disorders Headache Insomnia Vertigo 2.5 4.0 4.5 2.1 3.8 4.2 Respiratory System Disorders Bronchitis Sinusitis 6.6 2.3 6.3 1.8 Skin / Skin Appendage Disorders Eczema 4.5 3.0 Urogenital System Disorders Infection, urinary tract 3.2 3.1 Heart Protection Study In the Heart Protection Study (HPS), involving 20,536 patients (age range 40 to 80 years, 25% women, 97% Caucasians, 3% other races) treated with simvastatin tablets 40 mg/day (n=10,269) or placebo (n=10,267) over a mean of 5 years, only serious adverse reactions and discontinuations due to any adverse reactions were recorded. Discontinuation rates due to adverse reactions were 4.8% in patients treated with simvastatin tablets compared with 5.1% in patients treated with placebo. The incidence of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis was <0.1% in patients treated with simvastatin tablets. Other Clinical Studies Other adverse reactions reported in clinical trials were: diarrhea, rash, dyspepsia, flatulence, and asthenia. Laboratory Tests Marked persistent increases of hepatic transaminases have been noted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Elevated alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase have also been reported. About 5% of patients had elevations of CK levels of 3 or more times the normal value on one or more occasions. This was attributable to the noncardiac fraction of CK. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1) .] Adolescent Patients (ages 10 to 17 years) In a 48-week, controlled study in adolescent boys and girls who were at least 1 year post-menarche, 10 to 17 years of age (43.4% female, 97.7% Caucasians, 1.7% Hispanics, 0.6% Multiracial) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (n=175), treated with placebo or simvastatin tablets (10 to 40 mg daily), the most common adverse reactions observed in both groups were upper respiratory infection, headache, abdominal pain, and nausea [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.2) ] . 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience Because the below reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of simvastatin: pruritus, alopecia, a variety of skin changes (e.g., nodules, discoloration, dryness of skin/mucous membranes, changes to hair/nails), dizziness, muscle cramps, myalgia, pancreatitis, memory impairment, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, vomiting, anemia, erectile dysfunction, interstitial lung disease, rhabdomyolysis, hepatitis/jaundice, hepatic failure and depression. An apparent hypersensitivity syndrome has been reported rarely which has included some of the following features: anaphylaxis, angioedema, lupus erythematous-like syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, vasculitis, purpura, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, positive ANA, ESR increase, eosinophilia, arthritis, arthralgia, urticaria, asthenia, photosensitivity, fever, chills, flushing, malaise, dyspnea, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
TABLE 2: Adverse Reactions Reported Regardless of Causality by ≥2% of Patients Treated with simvastatin tablets and Greater than Placebo in 4S
Simvastatin Tablets (N = 2,221) % Placebo (N = 2,223) %
Body as a Whole Edema/swelling Abdominal pain 2.7 5.9 2.3 5.8
Cardiovascular System Disorders Atrial fibrillation 5.7 5.1
Digestive System Disorders Constipation Gastritis 2.2 4.9 1.6 3.9
Endocrine Disorders Diabetes mellitus 4.2 3.6
Musculoskeletal Disorders Myalgia 3.7 3.2
Nervous System / Psychiatric Disorders Headache Insomnia Vertigo 2.5 4.0 4.5 2.1 3.8 4.2
Respiratory System Disorders Bronchitis Sinusitis 6.6 2.3 6.3 1.8
Skin / Skin Appendage Disorders Eczema 4.5 3.0
Urogenital System Disorders Infection, urinary tract 3.2 3.1

simvastatin Drug Interactions

Information about and practical guidance on preventing clinically significant drug/drug and drug/food interactions that may occur in people taking the drug.
7. DRUG INTERACTIONS Drug Interactions Associated with Increased Risk of Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis ( 2.6 , 5.1 , 7.1 , 7.2 , 7.3 , 7.4 ) Interacting Agents Prescribing Recommendations Itraconazole, ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, nefazodone Avoid simvastatin Gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, danazol Do not exceed 10 mg simvastatin daily Amiodarone, verapamil Do not exceed 20 mg simvastatin daily Diltiazem Do not exceed 40 mg simvastatin daily Grapefruit juice Avoid large quantities of grapefruit juice (>1 quart daily) Coumarin anticoagulants: Concomitant use with simvastatin tablets prolongs INR. Achieve stable INR prior to starting simvastatin tablets. Monitor INR frequently until stable upon initiation or alteration of simvastatin tablets therapy. ( 7.7 ) 7.1 CYP3A4 Interactions Simvastatin, like several other inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, is a substrate of CYP3A4. Simvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4 but has no CYP3A4 inhibitory activity; therefore it is not expected to affect the plasma concentrations of other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. The risk of myopathy is increased by reducing the elimination of simvastatin. Hence when simvastatin is used with an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (e.g., as listed below), elevated plasma levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity can increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, particularly with higher doses of simvastatin. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) .] Itraconazole, ketoconazole, and other antifungal azoles Macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin, and the ketolide antibiotic telithromycin HIV protease inhibitors Antidepressant nefazodone Grapefruit juice in large quantities (>1 quart daily) Concomitant use of these drugs and any medication labeled as having a strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 should be avoided unless the benefits of combined therapy outweigh the increased risk. If treatment with itraconazole, ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin or telithromycin is unavoidable, therapy with simvastatin tablets should be suspended during the course of treatment. 7.2 Lipid-Lowering Drugs That Can Cause Myopathy When Given Alone The risk of myopathy is increased by gemfibrozil [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) ] and to a lesser extent by other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] . 7.3 Cyclosporine or Danazol The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased by concomitant administration of cyclosporine or danazol particularly with higher doses of simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 7.4 Amiodarone, Verapamil or Diltiazem The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased by concomitant administration of amiodarone, verapamil or diltiazem with higher doses of simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] . 7.5 Niacin Cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis have been observed with simvastatin coadministered with lipid-modifying doses (≥ 1 g/day niacin) of niacin-containing products. In particular, caution should be used when treating Chinese patients with simvastatin coadministered with lipid-modifying doses of niacin-containing products. Because the risk for myopathy is dose-related, Chinese patients should not receive simvastatin 80 mg coadministered with lipid-modifying doses of niacin-containing products. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 7.6 Digoxin In one study, concomitant administration of digoxin with simvastatin resulted in a slight elevation in digoxin concentrations in plasma. Patients taking digoxin should be monitored appropriately when simvastatin is initiated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 7.7 Coumarin Anticoagulants In two clinical studies, one in normal volunteers and the other in hypercholesterolemic patients, simvastatin 20 to 40 mg/day modestly potentiated the effect of coumarin anticoagulants: the prothrombin time, reported as International Normalized Ratio (INR), increased from a baseline of 1.7 to 1.8 and from 2.6 to 3.4 in the volunteer and patient studies, respectively. With other statins, clinically evident bleeding and/or increased prothrombin time has been reported in a few patients taking coumarin anticoagulants concomitantly. In such patients, prothrombin time should be determined before starting simvastatin and frequently enough during early therapy to ensure that no significant alteration of prothrombin time occurs. Once a stable prothrombin time has been documented, prothrombin times can be monitored at the intervals usually recommended for patients on coumarin anticoagulants. If the dose of simvastatin is changed or discontinued, the same procedure should be repeated. Simvastatin therapy has not been associated with bleeding or with changes in prothrombin time in patients not taking anticoagulants.
Drug Interactions Associated with Increased Risk of Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis ( 2.6, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4)
Interacting AgentsPrescribing Recommendations
Itraconazole, ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, nefazodoneAvoid simvastatin
Gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, danazolDo not exceed 10 mg simvastatin daily
Amiodarone, verapamilDo not exceed 20 mg simvastatin daily
DiltiazemDo not exceed 40 mg simvastatin daily
Grapefruit juiceAvoid large quantities of grapefruit juice (>1 quart daily)

Clinical pharmacology

Information about the clinical pharmacology and actions of the drug in humans.
12. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Simvastatin is a prodrug and is hydrolyzed to its active β-hydroxyacid form, simvastatin acid, after administration. Simvastatin is a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate limiting step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. In addition, simvastatin reduces VLDL and TG and increases HDL-C. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, LDL-C, as well as decreased levels of HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Lowering LDL-C decreases this risk. However, the independent effect of raising HDL-C or lowering TG on the risk of coronary and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Simvastatin is a lactone that is readily hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding β-hydroxyacid, a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase is the basis for an assay in pharmacokinetic studies of the β-hydroxyacid metabolites (active inhibitors) and, following base hydrolysis, active plus latent inhibitors (total inhibitors) in plasma following administration of simvastatin. Following an oral dose of 14 C-labeled simvastatin in man, 13% of the dose was excreted in urine and 60% in feces. Plasma concentrations of total radioactivity (simvastatin plus 14 C-metabolites) peaked at 4 hours and declined rapidly to about 10% of peak by 12 hours postdose. Since simvastatin undergoes extensive first-pass extraction in the liver, the availability of the drug to the general circulation is low (<5%). Both simvastatin and its β-hydroxyacid metabolite are highly bound (approximately 95%) to human plasma proteins. Rat studies indicate that when radiolabeled simvastatin was administered, simvastatin-derived radioactivity crossed the blood-brain barrier. The major active metabolites of simvastatin present in human plasma are the β-hydroxyacid of simvastatin and its 6′-hydroxy, 6′-hydroxymethyl, and 6′-exomethylene derivatives. Peak plasma concentrations of both active and total inhibitors were attained within 1.3 to 2.4 hours postdose. While the recommended therapeutic dose range is 5 to 80 mg/day, there was no substantial deviation from linearity of AUC of inhibitors in the general circulation with an increase in dose to as high as 120 mg. Relative to the fasting state, the plasma profile of inhibitors was not affected when simvastatin was administered immediately before an American Heart Association recommended low-fat meal. In a study including 16 elderly patients between 70 and 78 years of age who received simvastatin tablets 40 mg/day, the mean plasma level of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity was increased approximately 45% compared with 18 patients between 18 to 30 years of age. Clinical study experience in the elderly (n=1522), suggests that there were no overall differences in safety between elderly and younger patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ]. Kinetic studies with another statin, having a similar principal route of elimination, have suggested that for a given dose level higher systemic exposure may be achieved in patients with severe renal insufficiency (as measured by creatinine clearance). Although the mechanism is not fully understood, cyclosporine has been shown to increase the AUC of statins. The increase in AUC for simvastatin acid is presumably due, in part, to inhibition of CYP3A4. The risk of myopathy is increased by high levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity in plasma. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 can raise the plasma levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and increase the risk of myopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.1) ] . TABLE 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs or Grapefruit Juice on Simvastatin Systemic Exposure Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Simvastatin Geometric Mean Ratio (Ratio with / without coadministered drug) No Effect = 1.00 AUC C max Avoid taking with simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Telithromycin Results could be representative of the following CYP3A4 inhibitors: ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, and nefazodone. 200 mg QD for 4 days 80 mg simvastatin acid Simvastatin acid refers to the β-hydroxyacid of simvastatin. simvastatin 12 8.9 15 5.3 Nelfinavir 1250 mg BID for 14 days 20 mg QD for 28 days Simvastatin acid simvastatin 6 6.2 Itraconazole 200 mg QD for 4 days 80 mg simvastatin acid simvastatin 13.1 13.1 Avoid >1 quart of grapefruit juice with simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Grapefruit Juice The effect of amounts of grapefruit juice between those used in these two studies on simvastatin pharmacokinetics has not been studied. (high dose) 200 mL of double-strength TID 60 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 7 16 Grapefruit Juice (low dose) 8 oz (about 237mL) of single-strength 20 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.3 1.9 Avoid taking with >10 mg simvastatin , based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Gemfibrozil 600 mg BID for 3 days 40 mg simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.85 1.35 2.18 0.91 Avoid taking with >20 mg simvastatin , based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Verapamil SR 240 mg QD Days 1 to 7 then 240 mg BID on Days 8 to 10 80 mg on Day 10 simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.1 Avoid taking with >40 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) Diltiazem 120 mg BID for 10 days 80 mg on Day 10 simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.69 3.10 2.69 2.88 Diltiazem 120 mg BID for 14 days 20 mg on Day 14 simvastatin 4.6 3.6 No dosing adjustments required for the following: Fenofibrate 160 mg QD X 14 days 80 mg QD on Days 8 to 14 simvastatin acid simvastatin 0.64 0.89 0.89 0.83 Niacin extended-release 2 g single dose 20 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.6 1.4 1.84 1.08 Amlodipine 10 mg QD x 10 days 80 mg on Day 10 simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.58 1.77 1.56 1.47 Propranolol 80 mg single dose 80 mg single dose total inhibitor active inhibitor 0.79 0.79 ↓ from 33.6 to 21.1 ng·eq/mL ↓ from 7.0 to 4.7 ng·eq/mL In a study of 12 healthy volunteers, simvastatin at the 80-mg dose had no effect on the metabolism of the probe cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates midazolam and erythromycin. This indicates that simvastatin is not an inhibitor of CYP3A4, and, therefore, is not expected to affect the plasma levels of other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Coadministration of simvastatin(40 mg QD for 10 days) resulted in an increase in the maximum mean levels of cardioactive digoxin (given as a single 0.4 mg dose on day 10) by approximately 0.3 ng/mL.
TABLE 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs or Grapefruit Juice on Simvastatin Systemic Exposure
Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Simvastatin Geometric Mean Ratio (Ratio with / without coadministered drug) No Effect = 1.00
AUCC max
Avoid taking with simvastatin[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Telithromycin Results could be representative of the following CYP3A4 inhibitors: ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, and nefazodone.200 mg QD for 4 days80 mgsimvastatin acid Simvastatin acid refers to the β-hydroxyacid of simvastatin. simvastatin 12 8.9 15 5.3
Nelfinavir 1250 mg BID for 14 days20 mg QD for 28 daysSimvastatin acid simvastatin 6 6.2
Itraconazole 200 mg QD for 4 days80 mgsimvastatin acid simvastatin 13.113.1
Avoid >1 quart of grapefruit juice with simvastatin[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Grapefruit Juice The effect of amounts of grapefruit juice between those used in these two studies on simvastatin pharmacokinetics has not been studied.(high dose) 200 mL of double-strength TID 60 mg single dosesimvastatin acid simvastatin 7 16
Grapefruit Juice (low dose) 8 oz (about 237mL) of single-strength 20 mg single dosesimvastatin acid simvastatin 1.3 1.9
Avoid taking with >10 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Gemfibrozil600 mg BID for 3 days40 mgsimvastatin acid simvastatin 2.85 1.35 2.18 0.91
Avoid taking with >20 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Verapamil SR240 mg QD Days 1 to 7 then 240 mg BID on Days 8 to 1080 mg on Day 10simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.1
Avoid taking with >40 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)
Diltiazem120 mg BID for 10 days80 mg on Day 10simvastatin acid simvastatin2.69 3.102.69 2.88
Diltiazem120 mg BID for 14 days20 mg on Day 14simvastatin4.63.6
No dosing adjustments required for the following:
Fenofibrate160 mg QD X 14 days80 mg QD on Days 8 to 14simvastatin acid simvastatin 0.64 0.89 0.89 0.83
Niacin extended-release 2 g single dose20 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.6 1.4 1.84 1.08
Amlodipine10 mg QD x 10 days80 mg on Day 10simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.58 1.77 1.56 1.47
Propranolol80 mg single dose80 mg single dosetotal inhibitor active inhibitor 0.79 0.79 ↓ from 33.6 to 21.1 ng·eq/mL ↓ from 7.0 to 4.7 ng·eq/mL

Mechanism of action

Information about the established mechanism(s) of the drugÕs action in humans at various levels (for example receptor, membrane, tissue, organ, whole body). If the mechanism of action is not known, this field contains a statement about the lack of information.
12.1 Mechanism of Action Simvastatin is a prodrug and is hydrolyzed to its active β-hydroxyacid form, simvastatin acid, after administration. Simvastatin is a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate limiting step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. In addition, simvastatin reduces VLDL and TG and increases HDL-C.

Pharmacodynamics

Information about any biochemical or physiologic pharmacologic effects of the drug or active metabolites related to the drugÕs clinical effect in preventing, diagnosing, mitigating, curing, or treating disease, or those related to adverse effects or toxicity.
12.2 Pharmacodynamics Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, LDL-C, as well as decreased levels of HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Lowering LDL-C decreases this risk. However, the independent effect of raising HDL-C or lowering TG on the risk of coronary and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.

Pharmacokinetics

Information about the clinically significant pharmacokinetics of a drug or active metabolites, for instance pertinent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion parameters.
12.3 Pharmacokinetics Simvastatin is a lactone that is readily hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding β-hydroxyacid, a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase is the basis for an assay in pharmacokinetic studies of the β-hydroxyacid metabolites (active inhibitors) and, following base hydrolysis, active plus latent inhibitors (total inhibitors) in plasma following administration of simvastatin. Following an oral dose of 14 C-labeled simvastatin in man, 13% of the dose was excreted in urine and 60% in feces. Plasma concentrations of total radioactivity (simvastatin plus 14 C-metabolites) peaked at 4 hours and declined rapidly to about 10% of peak by 12 hours postdose. Since simvastatin undergoes extensive first-pass extraction in the liver, the availability of the drug to the general circulation is low (<5%). Both simvastatin and its β-hydroxyacid metabolite are highly bound (approximately 95%) to human plasma proteins. Rat studies indicate that when radiolabeled simvastatin was administered, simvastatin-derived radioactivity crossed the blood-brain barrier. The major active metabolites of simvastatin present in human plasma are the β-hydroxyacid of simvastatin and its 6′-hydroxy, 6′-hydroxymethyl, and 6′-exomethylene derivatives. Peak plasma concentrations of both active and total inhibitors were attained within 1.3 to 2.4 hours postdose. While the recommended therapeutic dose range is 5 to 80 mg/day, there was no substantial deviation from linearity of AUC of inhibitors in the general circulation with an increase in dose to as high as 120 mg. Relative to the fasting state, the plasma profile of inhibitors was not affected when simvastatin was administered immediately before an American Heart Association recommended low-fat meal. In a study including 16 elderly patients between 70 and 78 years of age who received simvastatin tablets 40 mg/day, the mean plasma level of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity was increased approximately 45% compared with 18 patients between 18 to 30 years of age. Clinical study experience in the elderly (n=1522), suggests that there were no overall differences in safety between elderly and younger patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ]. Kinetic studies with another statin, having a similar principal route of elimination, have suggested that for a given dose level higher systemic exposure may be achieved in patients with severe renal insufficiency (as measured by creatinine clearance). Although the mechanism is not fully understood, cyclosporine has been shown to increase the AUC of statins. The increase in AUC for simvastatin acid is presumably due, in part, to inhibition of CYP3A4. The risk of myopathy is increased by high levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity in plasma. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 can raise the plasma levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and increase the risk of myopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.1) ] . TABLE 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs or Grapefruit Juice on Simvastatin Systemic Exposure Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Simvastatin Geometric Mean Ratio (Ratio with / without coadministered drug) No Effect = 1.00 AUC C max Avoid taking with simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Telithromycin Results could be representative of the following CYP3A4 inhibitors: ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, and nefazodone. 200 mg QD for 4 days 80 mg simvastatin acid Simvastatin acid refers to the β-hydroxyacid of simvastatin. simvastatin 12 8.9 15 5.3 Nelfinavir 1250 mg BID for 14 days 20 mg QD for 28 days Simvastatin acid simvastatin 6 6.2 Itraconazole 200 mg QD for 4 days 80 mg simvastatin acid simvastatin 13.1 13.1 Avoid >1 quart of grapefruit juice with simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Grapefruit Juice The effect of amounts of grapefruit juice between those used in these two studies on simvastatin pharmacokinetics has not been studied. (high dose) 200 mL of double-strength TID 60 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 7 16 Grapefruit Juice (low dose) 8 oz (about 237mL) of single-strength 20 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.3 1.9 Avoid taking with >10 mg simvastatin , based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Gemfibrozil 600 mg BID for 3 days 40 mg simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.85 1.35 2.18 0.91 Avoid taking with >20 mg simvastatin , based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Verapamil SR 240 mg QD Days 1 to 7 then 240 mg BID on Days 8 to 10 80 mg on Day 10 simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.1 Avoid taking with >40 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) Diltiazem 120 mg BID for 10 days 80 mg on Day 10 simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.69 3.10 2.69 2.88 Diltiazem 120 mg BID for 14 days 20 mg on Day 14 simvastatin 4.6 3.6 No dosing adjustments required for the following: Fenofibrate 160 mg QD X 14 days 80 mg QD on Days 8 to 14 simvastatin acid simvastatin 0.64 0.89 0.89 0.83 Niacin extended-release 2 g single dose 20 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.6 1.4 1.84 1.08 Amlodipine 10 mg QD x 10 days 80 mg on Day 10 simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.58 1.77 1.56 1.47 Propranolol 80 mg single dose 80 mg single dose total inhibitor active inhibitor 0.79 0.79 ↓ from 33.6 to 21.1 ng·eq/mL ↓ from 7.0 to 4.7 ng·eq/mL In a study of 12 healthy volunteers, simvastatin at the 80-mg dose had no effect on the metabolism of the probe cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates midazolam and erythromycin. This indicates that simvastatin is not an inhibitor of CYP3A4, and, therefore, is not expected to affect the plasma levels of other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Coadministration of simvastatin(40 mg QD for 10 days) resulted in an increase in the maximum mean levels of cardioactive digoxin (given as a single 0.4 mg dose on day 10) by approximately 0.3 ng/mL.
TABLE 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs or Grapefruit Juice on Simvastatin Systemic Exposure
Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Coadministered Drug or Grapefruit Juice Dosing of Simvastatin Geometric Mean Ratio (Ratio with / without coadministered drug) No Effect = 1.00
AUCC max
Avoid taking with simvastatin[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Telithromycin Results could be representative of the following CYP3A4 inhibitors: ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, and nefazodone.200 mg QD for 4 days80 mgsimvastatin acid Simvastatin acid refers to the β-hydroxyacid of simvastatin. simvastatin 12 8.9 15 5.3
Nelfinavir 1250 mg BID for 14 days20 mg QD for 28 daysSimvastatin acid simvastatin 6 6.2
Itraconazole 200 mg QD for 4 days80 mgsimvastatin acid simvastatin 13.113.1
Avoid >1 quart of grapefruit juice with simvastatin[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Grapefruit Juice The effect of amounts of grapefruit juice between those used in these two studies on simvastatin pharmacokinetics has not been studied.(high dose) 200 mL of double-strength TID 60 mg single dosesimvastatin acid simvastatin 7 16
Grapefruit Juice (low dose) 8 oz (about 237mL) of single-strength 20 mg single dosesimvastatin acid simvastatin 1.3 1.9
Avoid taking with >10 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Gemfibrozil600 mg BID for 3 days40 mgsimvastatin acid simvastatin 2.85 1.35 2.18 0.91
Avoid taking with >20 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Verapamil SR240 mg QD Days 1 to 7 then 240 mg BID on Days 8 to 1080 mg on Day 10simvastatin acid simvastatin 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.1
Avoid taking with >40 mg simvastatin, based on clinical and/or post-marketing experience [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)
Diltiazem120 mg BID for 10 days80 mg on Day 10simvastatin acid simvastatin2.69 3.102.69 2.88
Diltiazem120 mg BID for 14 days20 mg on Day 14simvastatin4.63.6
No dosing adjustments required for the following:
Fenofibrate160 mg QD X 14 days80 mg QD on Days 8 to 14simvastatin acid simvastatin 0.64 0.89 0.89 0.83
Niacin extended-release 2 g single dose20 mg single dose simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.6 1.4 1.84 1.08
Amlodipine10 mg QD x 10 days80 mg on Day 10simvastatin acid simvastatin 1.58 1.77 1.56 1.47
Propranolol80 mg single dose80 mg single dosetotal inhibitor active inhibitor 0.79 0.79 ↓ from 33.6 to 21.1 ng·eq/mL ↓ from 7.0 to 4.7 ng·eq/mL

Contraindications

Information about situations in which the drug product is contraindicated or should not be used because the risk of use clearly outweighs any possible benefit, including the type and nature of reactions that have been reported.
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS Simvastatin tablet is contraindicated in the following conditions: Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ] . Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] . Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol or cholesterol derivatives are essential for fetal development. Because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, simvastatin tablets may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and the discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of use with simvastatin tablets during pregnancy; however, in rare reports congenital anomalies were observed following intrauterine exposure to statins. In rat and rabbit animal reproduction studies, simvastatin revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. Simvastatin tablets should be administered to women of childbearing age only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, simvastatin tablets should be discontinued immediately and the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ] . Nursing mothers. It is not known whether simvastatin is excreted into human milk; however, a small amount of another drug in this class does pass into breast milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require treatment with simvastatin tablets should not breastfeed their infants [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3) ] . Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication. ( 4 , 6.2 ) Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels. ( 4 , 5.2 ) Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant. ( 4 , 8.1 ) Nursing mothers. ( 4 , 8.3 )

Description

General information about the drug product, including the proprietary and established name of the drug, the type of dosage form and route of administration to which the label applies, qualitative and quantitative ingredient information, the pharmacologic or therapeutic class of the drug, and the chemical name and structural formula of the drug.
11. DESCRIPTION Simvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that is derived synthetically from a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus . After oral ingestion, simvastatin, which is an inactive lactone, is hydrolyzed to the corresponding β-hydroxyacid form. This is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, which is an early and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Simvastatin is butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-,1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-[2-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2 H -pyran-2-yl)-ethyl]-1-naphthalenyl ester, [1 S -[1α,3α,7β,8β(2 S* ,4 S* ),-8aβ]]. The empirical formula of simvastatin is C 25 H 38 O 5 and its molecular weight is 418.57. Its structural formula is: Simvastatin is a white to off-white, nonhygroscopic, crystalline powder that is practically insoluble in water, and freely soluble in chloroform, methanol and ethanol. Simvastatin tablets for oral administration contain either 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of simvastatin and the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose E5, croscarmellose sodium, ferric oxide red, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, starch, talc, titanium dioxide, butylated hydroxyanisole , ascorbic acid, citric acid monohydrate, and triethyl citrate. Simvastatin

Dosage and administration

Information about the drug product’s dosage and administration recommendations, including starting dose, dose range, titration regimens, and any other clinically sigificant information that affects dosing recommendations.
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dose range is 5 to 80 mg/day. ( 2.1 ) Recommended usual starting dose is 20 to 40 mg once a day in the evening. ( 2.1 ) Recommended starting dose for patients at high risk of CHD is 40 mg/day. ( 2.1 ) Adolescents (10 to 17 years of age) with HeFH: starting dose is 10 mg/day; maximum recommended dose is 40 mg/day. ( 2.3 ) 2.1 Recommended Dosing The dosage range is 5 to 80 mg/day. In patients with CHD or at high risk of CHD, simvastatin tablets can be started simultaneously with diet. The recommended usual starting dose is 20 to 40 mg once a day in the evening. For patients at high risk for a CHD event due to existing CHD, diabetes, peripheral vessel disease, history of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease, the recommended starting dose is 40 mg/day. Lipid determinations should be performed after 4 weeks of therapy and periodically thereafter. 2.2 Patients with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia The recommended dosage is 40 mg/day in the evening or 80 mg/day in 3 divided doses of 20 mg, 20 mg, and an evening dose of 40 mg. Simvastatin tablets should be used as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) in these patients or if such treatments are unavailable. 2.3. Adolescents (10 to 17 years of age) with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia The recommended usual starting dose is 10 mg once a day in the evening. The recommended dosing range is 10 to 40 mg/day; the maximum recommended dose is 40 mg/day. Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy [see NCEP Pediatric Panel Guidelines and Clinical Studies (14.2) ]. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more. 2.4 Patients with Renal Impairment Because simvastatin tablet does not undergo significant renal excretion, modification of dosage should not be necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. However, caution should be exercised when simvastatin tablet is administered to patients with severe renal impairment; such patients should be started at 5 mg/day and be closely monitored [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 2.5 Chinese Patients Taking Lipid-Modifying Doses ( ≥ 1 g/day Niacin) of Niacin-Containing Products Because of an increased risk for myopathy, caution should be used when treating Chinese patients with simvastatin coadministered with lipid-modifying doses ( ≥ 1 g/day niacin) of niacin-containing products. Because the risk for myopathy is dose-related, Chinese patients should not receive simvastatin 80 mg coadministered with lipid-modifying doses of niacin-containing products. The cause of the increased risk of myopathy is not known. It is also unknown if the risk for myopathy with coadministration of simvastatin with lipid-modifying doses of niacin-containing products observed in Chinese patients applies to other Asian patients. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] 2.6 Coadministration with Other Drugs Concomitant Lipid-Lowering Therapy Simvastatin tablets may be used concomitantly with bile acid sequestrants. Combination therapy with gemfibrozil increases simvastatin exposure. Therefore, if simvastatin tablet is used in combination with gemfibrozil, the dose of simvastatin tablets should not exceed 10 mg/day [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , Drug Interactions (7.2) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . Patients taking Cyclosporine or Danazol Simvastatin tablets therapy should begin with 5 mg/day and should not exceed 10 mg/day [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.3) ]. Patients taking Amiodarone or Verapamil The dose of simvastatin tablets should not exceed 20 mg/day [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , Drug Interactions (7.4) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Patients taking Diltiazem The dose of simvastatin tablets should not exceed 40 mg/day [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , Drug Interactions (7.4) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Dosage forms and strengths

Information about all available dosage forms and strengths for the drug product to which the labeling applies. This field may contain descriptions of product appearance.
3. DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Simvastatin Tablets 10 mg are brick red colored,oval shaped, biconvex,film-coated tablets, debossed “S 4” on one side and plain on the other side Simvastatin Tablets 20 mg are brick red colored,oval shaped, biconvex,film-coated tablets, debossed “S 5” on one side and plain on the other side. Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg are brick red colored,oval shaped, biconvex,film-coated tablets,debossed “S 6” on one side and plain on the other side Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg are brick red colored, capsule-shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with “SMV” on one side and “80” on the other side Tablets: 10 mg; 20 mg; 40 mg; 80 mg ( 3 )

Indications and usage

A statement of each of the drug products indications for use, such as for the treatment, prevention, mitigation, cure, or diagnosis of a disease or condition, or of a manifestation of a recognized disease or condition, or for the relief of symptoms associated with a recognized disease or condition. This field may also describe any relevant limitations of use.
1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. In patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or at high risk of CHD, simvastatin tablets can be started simultaneously with diet. Simvastatin tablet is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) indicated as an adjunctive therapy to diet to: Reduce the risk of total mortality by reducing CHD deaths and reduce the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and the need for revascularization procedures in patients at high risk of coronary events. ( 1.1 ) Reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, TG and increase HDL-C in patients with primary hyperlipidemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia. ( 1.2 ) Reduce elevated TG in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and reduce TG and VLDL-C in patients with primary dysbeta-lipoproteinemia. ( 1.2 ) Reduce total-C and LDL-C in adult patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. ( 1.2 ) Reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, and Apo B in boys and postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia after failing an adequate trial of diet therapy. ( 1.2 , 1.3 ) Limitations of Use Simvastatin tablet has not been studied in Fredrickson Types I and V dyslipidemias. ( 1.4 ) 1.1 Reductions in Risk of CHD Mortality and Cardiovascular Events In patients at high risk of coronary events because of existing coronary heart disease, diabetes, peripheral vessel disease, history of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease, simvastatin tablet is indicated to: Reduce the risk of total mortality by reducing CHD deaths. Reduce the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. Reduce the need for coronary and non-coronary revascularization procedures. 1.2 Hyperlipidemia Simvastatin tablet is indicated to: Reduce elevated total cholesterol (total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and triglycerides (TG), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with primary hyperlipidemia (Fredrickson type IIa, heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) or mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson type IIb). Reduce elevated TG in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson type lV hyperlipidemia). Reduce elevated TG and VLDL-C in patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson type III hyperlipidemia). Reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable. 1.3 Adolescent Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) Simvastatin tablet is indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C, and Apo B levels in adolescent boys and girls who are at least one year post-menarche, 10 to 17 years of age, with HeFH, if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present: LDL cholesterol remains ≥190 mg/dL; or LDL cholesterol remains ≥160 mg/dL and There is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) or Two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the adolescent patient. The minimum goal of treatment in pediatric and adolescent patients is to achieve a mean LDL-C <130 mg/dL. The optimal age at which to initiate lipid-lowering therapy to decrease the risk of symptomatic adulthood CAD has not been determined. 1.4 Limitations of Use Simvastatin tablet has not been studied in conditions where the major abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (i.e., hyperlipidemia Fredrickson types I and V).

Spl product data elements

Usually a list of ingredients in a drug product.
SIMVASTATIN simvastatin CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE HYPROMELLOSES CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM FERRIC OXIDE RED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE TALC STARCH, CORN BUTYLATED HYDROXYANISOLE TITANIUM DIOXIDE ASCORBIC ACID CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE TRIETHYL CITRATE SIMVASTATIN SIMVASTATIN Brick Red OVAL S5 SIMVASTATIN simvastatin CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE HYPROMELLOSES CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM FERRIC OXIDE RED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE TALC STARCH, CORN BUTYLATED HYDROXYANISOLE TITANIUM DIOXIDE ASCORBIC ACID CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE TRIETHYL CITRATE SIMVASTATIN SIMVASTATIN Brick Red OVAL S6 SIMVASTATIN simvastatin CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE HYPROMELLOSES CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM FERRIC OXIDE RED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE TALC STARCH, CORN BUTYLATED HYDROXYANISOLE TITANIUM DIOXIDE ASCORBIC ACID CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE TRIETHYL CITRATE SIMVASTATIN SIMVASTATIN Brick Red CAPSULE SMV;80

Animal pharmacology and or toxicology

Information from studies of the drug in animals, if the data were not relevant to nor included in other parts of the labeling. Most labels do not contain this field.
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology CNS Toxicity Optic nerve degeneration was seen in clinically normal dogs treated with simvastatin for 14 weeks at 180 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 12 times higher than the mean plasma drug level in humans taking 80 mg/day. A chemically similar drug in this class also produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion starting at 60 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean plasma drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose (as measured by total enzyme inhibitory activity). This same drug also produced vestibulocochlear Wallerian-like degeneration and retinal ganglion cell chromatolysis in dogs treated for 14 weeks at 180 mg/kg/day, a dose that resulted in a mean plasma drug level similar to that seen with the 60 mg/kg/day dose. CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhage and edema, mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, perivascular fibrin deposits and necrosis of small vessels were seen in dogs treated with simvastatin at a dose of 360 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels that were about 14 times higher than the mean plasma drug levels in humans taking 80 mg/day. Similar CNS vascular lesions have been observed with several other drugs of this class. There were cataracts in female rats after two years of treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day (22 and 25 times the human AUC at 80 mg/day, respectively) and in dogs after three months at 90 mg/kg/day (19 times) and at two years at 50 mg/kg/day (5 times).

Carcinogenesis and mutagenesis and impairment of fertility

Information about carcinogenic, mutagenic, or fertility impairment potential revealed by studies in animals. Information from human data about such potential is part of the warnings field.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In a 72-week carcinogenicity study, mice were administered daily doses of simvastatin of 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg body weight, which resulted in mean plasma drug levels approximately 1, 4, and 8 times higher than the mean human plasma drug level, respectively (as total inhibitory activity based on AUC) after an 80-mg oral dose. Liver carcinomas were significantly increased in high-dose females and mid- and high-dose males with a maximum incidence of 90% in males. The incidence of adenomas of the liver was significantly increased in mid- and high-dose females. Drug treatment also significantly increased the incidence of lung adenomas in mid- and high-dose males and females. Adenomas of the Harderian gland (a gland of the eye of rodents) were significantly higher in high-dose mice than in controls. No evidence of a tumorigenic effect was observed at 25 mg/kg/day. In a separate 92-week carcinogenicity study in mice at doses up to 25 mg/kg/day, no evidence of a tumorigenic effect was observed (mean plasma drug levels were 1 times higher than humans given 80 mg simvastatin as measured by AUC). In a two-year study in rats at 25 mg/kg/day, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid follicular adenomas in female rats exposed to approximately 11 times higher levels of simvastatin than in humans given 80 mg simvastatin (as measured by AUC). A second two-year rat carcinogenicity study with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day produced hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (in female rats at both doses and in males at 100 mg/kg/day). Thyroid follicular cell adenomas were increased in males and females at both doses; thyroid follicular cell carcinomas were increased in females at 100 mg/kg/day. The increased incidence of thyroid neoplasms appears to be consistent with findings from other statins. These treatment levels represented plasma drug levels (AUC) of approximately 7 and 15 times (males) and 22 and 25 times (females) the mean human plasma drug exposure after an 80 milligram daily dose. No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in a microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test with or without rat or mouse liver metabolic activation. In addition, no evidence of damage to genetic material was noted in an in vitro alkaline elution assay using rat hepatocytes, a V-79 mammalian cell forward mutation study, an in vitro chromosome aberration study in CHO cells, or an in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in mouse bone marrow. There was decreased fertility in male rats treated with simvastatin for 34 weeks at 25 mg/kg body weight (4 times the maximum human exposure level, based on AUC, in patients receiving 80 mg/day); however, this effect was not observed during a subsequent fertility study in which simvastatin was administered at this same dose level to male rats for 11 weeks (the entire cycle of spermatogenesis including epididymal maturation). No microscopic changes were observed in the testes of rats from either study. At 180 mg/kg/day, (which produces exposure levels 22 times higher than those in humans taking 80 mg/day based on surface area, mg/m 2 ), seminiferous tubule degeneration (necrosis and loss of spermatogenic epithelium) was observed. In dogs, there was drug-related testicular atrophy, decreased spermatogenesis, spermatocytic degeneration and giant cell formation at 10 mg/kg/day, (approximately 2 times the human exposure, based on AUC, at 80 mg/day). The clinical significance of these findings is unclear.

Nonclinical toxicology

Information about toxicology in non-human subjects.
13. NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In a 72-week carcinogenicity study, mice were administered daily doses of simvastatin of 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg body weight, which resulted in mean plasma drug levels approximately 1, 4, and 8 times higher than the mean human plasma drug level, respectively (as total inhibitory activity based on AUC) after an 80-mg oral dose. Liver carcinomas were significantly increased in high-dose females and mid- and high-dose males with a maximum incidence of 90% in males. The incidence of adenomas of the liver was significantly increased in mid- and high-dose females. Drug treatment also significantly increased the incidence of lung adenomas in mid- and high-dose males and females. Adenomas of the Harderian gland (a gland of the eye of rodents) were significantly higher in high-dose mice than in controls. No evidence of a tumorigenic effect was observed at 25 mg/kg/day. In a separate 92-week carcinogenicity study in mice at doses up to 25 mg/kg/day, no evidence of a tumorigenic effect was observed (mean plasma drug levels were 1 times higher than humans given 80 mg simvastatin as measured by AUC). In a two-year study in rats at 25 mg/kg/day, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid follicular adenomas in female rats exposed to approximately 11 times higher levels of simvastatin than in humans given 80 mg simvastatin (as measured by AUC). A second two-year rat carcinogenicity study with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day produced hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (in female rats at both doses and in males at 100 mg/kg/day). Thyroid follicular cell adenomas were increased in males and females at both doses; thyroid follicular cell carcinomas were increased in females at 100 mg/kg/day. The increased incidence of thyroid neoplasms appears to be consistent with findings from other statins. These treatment levels represented plasma drug levels (AUC) of approximately 7 and 15 times (males) and 22 and 25 times (females) the mean human plasma drug exposure after an 80 milligram daily dose. No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in a microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test with or without rat or mouse liver metabolic activation. In addition, no evidence of damage to genetic material was noted in an in vitro alkaline elution assay using rat hepatocytes, a V-79 mammalian cell forward mutation study, an in vitro chromosome aberration study in CHO cells, or an in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in mouse bone marrow. There was decreased fertility in male rats treated with simvastatin for 34 weeks at 25 mg/kg body weight (4 times the maximum human exposure level, based on AUC, in patients receiving 80 mg/day); however, this effect was not observed during a subsequent fertility study in which simvastatin was administered at this same dose level to male rats for 11 weeks (the entire cycle of spermatogenesis including epididymal maturation). No microscopic changes were observed in the testes of rats from either study. At 180 mg/kg/day, (which produces exposure levels 22 times higher than those in humans taking 80 mg/day based on surface area, mg/m 2 ), seminiferous tubule degeneration (necrosis and loss of spermatogenic epithelium) was observed. In dogs, there was drug-related testicular atrophy, decreased spermatogenesis, spermatocytic degeneration and giant cell formation at 10 mg/kg/day, (approximately 2 times the human exposure, based on AUC, at 80 mg/day). The clinical significance of these findings is unclear. 13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology CNS Toxicity Optic nerve degeneration was seen in clinically normal dogs treated with simvastatin for 14 weeks at 180 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 12 times higher than the mean plasma drug level in humans taking 80 mg/day. A chemically similar drug in this class also produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion starting at 60 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean plasma drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose (as measured by total enzyme inhibitory activity). This same drug also produced vestibulocochlear Wallerian-like degeneration and retinal ganglion cell chromatolysis in dogs treated for 14 weeks at 180 mg/kg/day, a dose that resulted in a mean plasma drug level similar to that seen with the 60 mg/kg/day dose. CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhage and edema, mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, perivascular fibrin deposits and necrosis of small vessels were seen in dogs treated with simvastatin at a dose of 360 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels that were about 14 times higher than the mean plasma drug levels in humans taking 80 mg/day. Similar CNS vascular lesions have been observed with several other drugs of this class. There were cataracts in female rats after two years of treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day (22 and 25 times the human AUC at 80 mg/day, respectively) and in dogs after three months at 90 mg/kg/day (19 times) and at two years at 50 mg/kg/day (5 times).

Package label principal display panel

The content of the principal display panel of the product package, usually including the product’s name, dosage forms, and other key information about the drug product.
simv sim simv

Recent major changes

A list of the section(s) that contain substantive changes that have been approved by FDA in the product labeling. The headings and subheadings, if appropriate, affected by the change are listed together with each section’s identifying number and the month and year on which the change was incorporated in the labeling.
Dosage and Administration Chinese Patients Taking Lipid-Modifying Doses ( ≥ 1 g/day Niacin) of Niacin-Containing Products ( 2.5 ) 03/2010 Coadministration with Other Drugs ( 2.6 ) 03/2010 Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis ( 5.1 ) Warnings and Precautions 03/2010

simvastatin: Information for patients

Information necessary for patients to use the drug safely and effectively, such as precautions concerning driving or the concomitant use of other substances that may have harmful additive effects.
17. PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Patients should be advised to adhere to their National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-recommended diet, a regular exercise program, and periodic testing of a fasting lipid panel. Patients should be advised about substances they should not take concomitantly with simvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Patients should also be advised to inform other healthcare professionals prescribing a new medication that they are taking simvastatin tablets. 17.1 Muscle Pain All patients starting therapy with simvastatin tablets should be advised of the risk of myopathy and told to report promptly any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness. The risk of this occurring is increased when taking certain types of medication or consuming larger quantities of grapefruit juice. They should discuss all medication, both prescription and over the counter, with their healthcare professional. 17.2 Liver Enzymes It is recommended that liver function tests be performed before the initiation of simvastatin tablets, and thereafter when clinically indicated. Patients titrated to the 80-mg dose should receive an additional test prior to titration, 3 months after titration to the 80-mg dose, and periodically thereafter (e.g., semiannually) for the first year of treatment. 17.3 Pregnancy Women of childbearing age should be advised to use an effective method of birth control to prevent pregnancy while using simvastatin tablets. Discuss future pregnancy plans with your patients, and discuss when to stop taking simvastatin tablets if they are trying to conceive. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant they should stop taking simvastatin tablets and call their healthcare professional. 17.4 Breastfeeding Women who are breastfeeding should not use simvastatin tablets. Patients who have a lipid disorder and are breastfeeding should be advised to discuss the options with their healthcare professional. Manufactured By: Intas Pharmaceuticals Limited, Plot No : 457, 458, Village – Matoda, Bavla Road, Ta.- Sanand, Dist.- Ahmedabad – 382 210. India. 10 1331 2 626822 Issued November, 2010

Clinical studies

This field may contain references to clinical studies in place of detailed discussion in other sections of the labeling.
14. CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Clinical Studies in Adults Reductions in Risk of CHD Mortality and Cardiovascular Events In 4S, the effect of therapy with simvastatin tablets on total mortality was assessed in 4,444 patients with CHD and baseline total cholesterol 212 to 309 mg/dL (5.5 to 8.0 mmol/L). In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with standard care, including diet, and either simvastatin tablets 20 to 40 mg/day (n=2,221) or placebo (n=2,223) for a median duration of 5.4 years. Over the course of the study, treatment with simvastatin tablets led to mean reductions in total-C, LDL-C and TG of 25%, 35%, and 10%, respectively, and a mean increase in HDL-C of 8%. Simvastatin tablets significantly reduced the risk of mortality by 30% (p=0.0003, 182 deaths in the simvastatin tablets group vs 256 deaths in the placebo group). The risk of CHD mortality was significantly reduced by 42% (p=0.00001, 111 vs 189 deaths). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in non-cardiovascular mortality. Simvastatin tablets significantly decreased the risk of having major coronary events (CHD mortality plus hospital-verified and silent non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI]) by 34% (p<0.00001, 431 vs 622 patients with one or more events). The risk of having a hospital-verified non-fatal MI was reduced by 37%. Simvastatin tablets significantly reduced the risk for undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) by 37% (p<0.00001, 252 vs 383 patients). Simvastatin tablets significantly reduced the risk of fatal plus non-fatal cerebrovascular events (combined stroke and transient ischemic attacks) by 28% (p=0.033, 75 vs 102 patients). Simvastatin tablets reduced the risk of major coronary events to a similar extent across the range of baseline total and LDL cholesterol levels. Because there were only 53 female deaths, the effect of simvastatin tablets on mortality in women could not be adequately assessed. However, simvastatin tablets significantly lessened the risk of having major coronary events by 34% (60 vs 91 women with one or more event). The randomization was stratified by angina alone (21% of each treatment group) or a previous MI. Because there were only 57 deaths among the patients with angina alone at baseline, the effect of simvastatin tablets on mortality in this subgroup could not be adequately assessed. However, trends in reduced coronary mortality, major coronary events and revascularization procedures were consistent between this group and the total study cohort. Additionally, simvastatin tablets resulted in similar decreases in relative risk for total mortality, CHD mortality, and major coronary events in elderly patients (≥65 years), compared with younger patients. The Heart Protection Study (HPS) was a large, multi-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with a mean duration of 5 years conducted in 20,536 patients (10,269 on simvastatin tablets 40 mg and 10,267 on placebo). Patients were allocated to treatment using a covariate adaptive method which took into account the distribution of 10 important baseline characteristics of patients already enrolled and minimized the imbalance of those characteristics across the groups. Patients had a mean age of 64 years (range 40 to 80 years), were 97% Caucasian and were at high risk of developing a major coronary event because of existing CHD (65%), diabetes (Type 2, 26%; Type 1, 3%), history of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease (16%), peripheral vessel disease (33%), or hypertension in males ≥65 years (6%). At baseline, 3,421 patients (17%) had LDL-C levels below 100 mg/dL, of whom 953 (5%) had LDL-C levels below 80 mg/dL; 7,068 patients (34%) had levels between 100 and 130 mg/dL; and 10,047 patients (49%) had levels greater than 130 mg/dL. The HPS results showed that simvastatin tablets 40 mg/day significantly reduced: total and CHD mortality; non-fatal MI, stroke, and revascularization procedures (coronary and non-coronary) (see Table 4). TABLE 4: Summary of Heart Protection Study Results Endpoint Simvastatin Tablets (N=10,269) n (%) n = number of patients with indicated event Placebo (N=10,267) n (%) Risk Reduction (%) (95% CI) p-Value Primary Mortality 1,328 (12.9) 1,507 (14.7) 13 (6 to 19) p=0.0003 CHD mortality 587 (5.7) 707 (6.9) 18 (8 to 26) p=0.0005 Secondary Non-fatal MI 357 (3.5) 574 (5.6) 38 (30 to 46) p<0.0001 Stroke 444 (4.3) 585 (5.7) 25 (15 to 34) p<0.0001 Tertiary Coronary revascularization 513 (5) 725 (7.1) 30 (22 to 38) p<0.0001 Peripheral and other non-coronary revascularization 450 (4.4) 532 (5.2) 16 (5 to 26) p=0.006 Two composite endpoints were defined in order to have sufficient events to assess relative risk reductions across a range of baseline characteristics (see Figure 1). A composite of major coronary events (MCE) was comprised of CHD mortality and non-fatal MI (analyzed by time-to-first event; 898 patients treated with simvastatin tablets had events and 1,212 patients on placebo had events). A composite of major vascular events (MVE) was comprised of MCE, stroke and revascularization procedures including coronary, peripheral and other non-coronary procedures (analyzed by time-to-first event; 2,033 patients treated with simvastatin tablets had events and 2,585 patients on placebo had events). Significant relative risk reductions were observed for both composite endpoints (27% for MCE and 24% for MVE, p<0.0001). Treatment with simvastatin tablets produced significant relative risk reductions for all components of the composite endpoints. The risk reductions produced by simvastatin tablets in both MCE and MVE were evident and consistent regardless of cardiovascular disease related medical history at study entry (i.e., CHD alone; or peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes or treated hypertension, with or without CHD), gender, age, creatinine levels up to the entry limit of 2.3 mg/dL, baseline levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, apolipoprotein B and A-1, baseline concomitant cardiovascular medications (i.e., aspirin, beta blockers, or calcium channel blockers), smoking status, alcohol intake, or obesity. Diabetics showed risk reductions for MCE and MVE due to simvastatin tablets treatment regardless of baseline HbA1c levels or obesity with the greatest effects seen for diabetics without CHD. Angiographic Studies In the Multicenter Anti-Atheroma Study, the effect of simvastatin on atherosclerosis was assessed by quantitative coronary angiography in hypercholesterolemic patients with CHD. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, patients were treated with simvastatin 20 mg/day or placebo. Angiograms were evaluated at baseline, two and four years. The co-primary study endpoints were mean change per-patient in minimum and mean lumen diameters, indicating focal and diffuse disease, respectively. Simvastatin tablets significantly slowed the progression of lesions as measured in the Year 4 angiogram by both parameters, as well as by change in percent diameter stenosis. In addition, simvastatin significantly decreased the proportion of patients with new lesions and with new total occlusions. Modifications of Lipid Profiles Primary Hyperlipidemia (Fredrickson type lla and llb) Simvastatin tablet has been shown to be effective in reducing total-C and LDL-C in heterozygous familial and non-familial forms of hyperlipidemia and in mixed hyperlipidemia. Maximal to near maximal response is generally achieved within 4 to 6 weeks and maintained during chronic therapy. Simvastatin tablets consistently and significantly decreased total-C, LDL-C, total-C/HDL-C ratio, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio; simvastatin tablets also decreased TG and increased HDL-C (see Table 5). TABLE 5: Mean Response in Patients with Primary Hyperlipidemia and Combined (mixed) Hyperlipidemia (Mean Percent Change from Baseline After 6 to 24 Weeks) TREATMENT N TOTAL-C LDL-C HDL-C TG Lower Dose Comparative Study (Mean % Change at Week 6) Simvastatin Tablets 5 mg q.p.m. 109 -19 -26 10 -12 Simvastatin Tablets 10 mg q.p.m. 110 -23 -30 12 -15 Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (Mean % Change at Week 6) Placebo 2223 -1 -1 0 -2 Simvastatin Tablets 20 mg q.p.m. 2221 -28 -38 8 -19 Upper Dose Comparative Study (Mean % Change Averaged at Weeks 18 and 24) Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg q.p.m. 433 -31 -41 9 -18 Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg q.p.m. 664 -36 -47 8 -24 Multi-Center Combined Hyperlipidemia Study (Mean % Change at Week 6) Placebo 125 1 2 3 -4 Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg q.p.m. 123 -25 -29 13 -28 Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg q.p.m. 124 -31 -36 16 -33 Hypertriglyceridemia (Frederickson type IV) The results of a subgroup analysis in 74 patients with type lV hyperlipidemia from a 130-patient, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period crossover study are presented in Table 6. TABLE 6: Six-week, Lipid-lowering Effects of Simvastatin in Type lV Hyperlipidemia Median Percent Change (25 th and 75 th percentile) from Baseline TREATMENT N Total-C LDL-C HDL-C TG VLDL-C Non-HDL-C Placebo 74 +2 (-7, +7) +1 (-8, +14) +3 (-3, +10) -9 (-25, +13) -7 (-25, +11) +1 (-9, +8) Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg/day 74 -25 (-34, -19) -28 (-40, -17) +11 (+5, +23) -29 (-43, -16) -37 (-54, -23) -32 (-42, -23) Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg/day 74 -32 (-38, -24) -37 (-46, -26) +15 (+5, +23) -34 (-45, -18) -41 (-57, -28) -38 (-49, -32) Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson type lll) The results of a subgroup analysis in 7 patients with type lll hyperlipidemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia) (apo E2/2) (VLDL-C/TG>0.25) from a 130-patient, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period crossover study are presented in Table 7. TABLE 7: Six-week, Lipid-lowering Effects of Simvastatin in Type lll Hyperlipidemia Median Percent Change (min, max) from Baseline TREATMENT N Total-C LDL-C + IDL HDL-C TG VLDL-C+IDL Non-HDL-C Placebo 7 -8 (-24, +34) -8 (-27, +23) -2 (-21, +16) +4 (-22, +90) -4 (-28, +78) -8 (-26, -39) Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg/day 7 -50 (-66, -39) -50 (-60, -31) +7 (-8, +23) -41 (-74, -16) -58 (-90, -37) -57 (-72, -44) Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg/day 7 -52 (-55, -41) -51 (-57, -28) +7 (-5, +29) -38 (-58, +2) -60 (-72, -39) -59 (-61, -46) Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia In a controlled clinical study, 12 patients 15 to 39 years of age with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia received simvastatin 40 mg/day in a single dose or in 3 divided doses, or 80 mg/day in 3 divided doses. In 11 patients with reductions in LDL-C, the mean LDL-C changes for the 40- and 80-mg doses were 14% (range 8% to 23%, median 12%) and 30% (range 14% to 46%, median 29%), respectively. One patient had an increase of 15% in LDL-C. Another patient with absent LDL-C receptor function had an LDL-C reduction of 41% with the 80-mg dose. Endocrine Function In clinical studies, simvastatin did not impair adrenal reserve or significantly reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration. Small reductions from baseline in basal plasma testosterone in men were observed in clinical studies with simvastatin, an effect also observed with other statins and the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. There was no effect on plasma gonadotropin levels. In a placebo-controlled, 12-week study there was no significant effect of simvastatin 80 mg on the plasma testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin. In another 24-week study, simvastatin 20 to 40 mg had no detectable effect on spermatogenesis. In 4S, in which 4,444 patients were randomized to simvastatin 20 to 40 mg/day or placebo for a median duration of 5.4 years, the incidence of male sexual adverse events in the two treatment groups was not significantly different. Because of these factors, the small changes in plasma testosterone are unlikely to be clinically significant. The effects, if any, on the pituitary-gonadal axis in pre-menopausal women are unknown. Simvastatin 14.2 Clinical Studies in Adolescents In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 175 patients (99 adolescent boys and 76 post-menarchal girls) 10 to 17 years of age (mean age 14.1 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were randomized to simvastatin (n=106) or placebo (n=67) for 24 weeks (base study). Inclusion in the study required a baseline LDL-C level between 160 and 400 mg/dL and at least one parent with an LDL-C level >189 mg/dL. The dosage of simvastatin (once daily in the evening) was 10 mg for the first 8 weeks, 20 mg for the second 8 weeks, and 40 mg thereafter. In a 24-week extension, 144 patients elected to continue therapy with simvastatin 40 mg or placebo. Simvastatin tablets significantly decreased plasma levels of total-C, LDL-C, and Apo B (see Table 8). Results from the extension at 48 weeks were comparable to those observed in the base study. TABLE 8: Lipid-Lowering Effects of Simvastatin in Adolescent Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (Mean Percent Change from Baseline) Dosage Duration N Total-C LDL-C HDL-C TG Apo B Placebo 24 Weeks 67 % Change from Baseline (95% CI) 1.6 (-2.2, 5.3) 1.1 (-3.4, 5.5) 3.6 (-0.7, 8.0) -3.2 (-11.8, 5.4) -0.5 (-4.7, 3.6) Mean baseline, mg/dL (SD) 278.6 (51.8) 211.9 (49.0) 46.9 (11.9) 90.0 (50.7) 186.3 (38.1) Simvastatin Tablets 24 Weeks 106 % Change from Baseline (95% CI) -26.5 (-29.6, -23.3) -36.8 (-40.5, -33.0) 8.3 (4.6, 11.9) -7.9 (-15.8, 0.0) -32.4 (-35.9, -29.0) Mean baseline, mg/dL (SD) 270.2 (44.0) 203.8 (41.5) 47.7 (9.0) 78.3 (46.0) 179.9 (33.8) After 24 weeks of treatment, the mean achieved LDL-C value was 124.9 mg/dL (range: 64.0 to 289.0 mg/dL) in the simvastatin tablets 40 mg group compared to 207.8 mg/dL (range: 128.0 to 334.0 mg/dL) in the placebo group. The safety and efficacy of doses above 40 mg daily have not been studied in children with HeFH. The long-term efficacy of simvastatin therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.
TABLE 4: Summary of Heart Protection Study Results
Endpoint Simvastatin Tablets (N=10,269) n (%) n = number of patients with indicated eventPlacebo (N=10,267) n (%) Risk Reduction (%) (95% CI)p-Value
Primary
Mortality1,328 (12.9) 1,507 (14.7)13 (6 to 19)p=0.0003
CHD mortality 587 (5.7) 707 (6.9)18 (8 to 26)p=0.0005
Secondary
Non-fatal MI357 (3.5)574 (5.6)38 (30 to 46)p<0.0001
Stroke 444 (4.3) 585 (5.7)25 (15 to 34)p<0.0001
Tertiary
Coronary revascularization 513 (5) 725 (7.1) 30 (22 to 38)p<0.0001
Peripheral and other non-coronary revascularization 450 (4.4) 532 (5.2)16 (5 to 26)p=0.006
TABLE 5: Mean Response in Patients with Primary Hyperlipidemia and Combined (mixed) Hyperlipidemia (Mean Percent Change from Baseline After 6 to 24 Weeks)
TREATMENTNTOTAL-CLDL-CHDL-CTG
Lower Dose Comparative Study (Mean % Change at Week 6)
Simvastatin Tablets 5 mg q.p.m. 109-19-2610-12
Simvastatin Tablets 10 mg q.p.m. 110-23-3012-15
Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (Mean % Change at Week 6)
Placebo2223-1-10-2
Simvastatin Tablets 20 mg q.p.m. 2221-28-388-19
Upper Dose Comparative Study (Mean % Change Averaged at Weeks 18 and 24)
Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg q.p.m. 433-31-419-18
Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg q.p.m. 664-36-478-24
Multi-Center Combined Hyperlipidemia Study (Mean % Change at Week 6)
Placebo125123-4
Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg q.p.m. 123-25-2913-28
Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg q.p.m. 124-31-3616-33
TABLE 6: Six-week, Lipid-lowering Effects of Simvastatin in Type lV Hyperlipidemia Median Percent Change (25 th and 75 th percentile) from Baseline
TREATMENTNTotal-CLDL-CHDL-CTGVLDL-CNon-HDL-C
Placebo74+2(-7, +7)+1(-8, +14)+3(-3, +10)-9(-25, +13)-7(-25, +11)+1(-9, +8)
Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg/day 74 -25(-34, -19) -28(-40, -17) +11(+5, +23) -29(-43, -16) -37(-54, -23) -32(-42, -23)
Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg/day 74 -32(-38, -24) -37(-46, -26) +15(+5, +23) -34(-45, -18) -41(-57, -28) -38(-49, -32)
TABLE 7: Six-week, Lipid-lowering Effects of Simvastatin in Type lll Hyperlipidemia Median Percent Change (min, max) from Baseline
TREATMENTNTotal-CLDL-C + IDLHDL-CTGVLDL-C+IDLNon-HDL-C
Placebo7-8 (-24, +34) -8(-27, +23) -2(-21, +16) +4(-22, +90) -4(-28, +78) -8 (-26, -39)
Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg/day 7 -50 (-66, -39) -50(-60, -31) +7(-8, +23) -41(-74, -16) -58(-90, -37) -57(-72, -44)
Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg/day 7 -52 (-55, -41) -51(-57, -28) +7(-5, +29) -38(-58, +2) -60 (-72, -39) -59(-61, -46)
TABLE 8: Lipid-Lowering Effects of Simvastatin in Adolescent Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (Mean Percent Change from Baseline)
DosageDurationNTotal-C LDL-CHDL-CTG Apo B
Placebo24 Weeks67% Change from Baseline (95% CI) 1.6 (-2.2, 5.3) 1.1 (-3.4, 5.5) 3.6 (-0.7, 8.0) -3.2 (-11.8, 5.4) -0.5 (-4.7, 3.6)
Mean baseline, mg/dL (SD) 278.6(51.8) 211.9(49.0) 46.9(11.9) 90.0(50.7) 186.3(38.1)
Simvastatin Tablets24 Weeks106% Change from Baseline (95% CI) -26.5(-29.6, -23.3)-36.8(-40.5, -33.0)8.3(4.6, 11.9)-7.9(-15.8, 0.0)-32.4(-35.9, -29.0)
Mean baseline, mg/dL (SD) 270.2(44.0) 203.8(41.5) 47.7(9.0) 78.3(46.0) 179.9(33.8)

Geriatric use

Information about any limitations on any geriatric indications, needs for specific monitoring, hazards associated with use of the drug in the geriatric population.
8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 2,423 patients who received simvastatin tablets in Phase III clinical studies and the 10,269 patients in the Heart Protection Study who received simvastatin tablets, 363 (15%) and 5,366 (52%), respectively were ≥65 years old. In HPS, 615 (6%) were ≥75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Since advanced age (≥65 years) is a predisposing factor for myopathy, simvastatin tablets should be prescribed with caution in the elderly. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) .] A pharmacokinetic study with simvastatin showed the mean plasma level of statin activity to be approximately 45% higher in elderly patients between 70 to 78 years of age compared with patients between 18 to 30 years of age. In 4S, 1,021 (23%) of 4,444 patients were 65 or older. Lipid-lowering efficacy was at least as great in elderly patients compared with younger patients, and simvastatin tablets significantly reduced total mortality and CHD mortality in elderly patients with a history of CHD. In HPS, 52% of patients were elderly (4,891 patients 65 to 69 years and 5,806 patients 70 years or older). The relative risk reductions of CHD death, non-fatal MI, coronary and non-coronary revascularization procedures, and stroke were similar in older and younger patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. In HPS, among 32,145 patients entering the active run-in period, there were 2 cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis; these patients were aged 67 and 73. Of the 7 cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis among 10,269 patients allocated to simvastatin, 4 were aged 65 or more (at baseline), of whom one was over 75. There were no overall differences in safety between older and younger patients in either 4S or HPS.

Nursing mothers

Information about excretion of the drug in human milk and effects on the nursing infant, including pertinent adverse effects observed in animal offspring.
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether simvastatin is excreted in human milk. Because a small amount of another drug in this class is excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking simvastatin should not nurse their infants. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Contraindications (4) ] .

Pediatric use

Information about any limitations on any pediatric indications, needs for specific monitoring, hazards associated with use of the drug in any subsets of the pediatric population (such as neonates, infants, children, or adolescents), differences between pediatric and adult responses to the drug, and other information related to the safe and effective pediatric use of the drug.
8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of simvastatin in patients 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have been evaluated in a controlled clinical trial in adolescent boys and in girls who were at least 1 year post-menarche. Patients treated with simvastatin had an adverse reaction profile similar to that of patients treated with placebo. Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this population . In this limited controlled study, there was no significant effect on growth or sexual maturation in the adolescent boys or girls, or on menstrual cycle length in girls. [See Dosage and Administration (2.3) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) , Clinical Studies (14.2) .] Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on simvastatin therapy [see Contraindications (4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ]. Simvastatin has not been studied in patients younger than 10 years of age, nor in pre-menarchal girls.

Pregnancy

Information about effects the drug may have on pregnant women or on a fetus. This field may be ommitted if the drug is not absorbed systemically and the drug is not known to have a potential for indirect harm to the fetus. It may contain information about the established pregnancy category classification for the drug. (That information is nominally listed in the teratogenic_effects field, but may be listed here instead.)
8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category X [See Contraindications (4) .] Simvastatin tablet is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Lipid lowering drugs offer no benefit during pregnancy, because cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives are needed for normal fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process, and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on long-term outcomes of primary hypercholesterolemia therapy. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of use with simvastatin tablets during pregnancy; however, there are rare reports of congenital anomalies in infants exposed to statins in utero . Animal reproduction studies of simvastatin in rats and rabbits showed no evidence of teratogenicity. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol or cholesterol derivatives are essential for fetal development. Because statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, simvastatin tablets may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If simvastatin tablet is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. There are rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to statins. In a review of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or another structurally related statin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed those expected in the general population. However, the study was only able to exclude a 3- to 4-fold increased risk of congenital anomalies over the background rate. In 89% of these cases, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued during the first trimester when pregnancy was identified. Simvastatin was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits at doses (25, 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) that resulted in 3 times the human exposure based on mg/m 2 surface area. However, in studies with another structurally-related statin, skeletal malformations were observed in rats and mice. Women of childbearing potential, who require treatment with simvastatin tablets for a lipid disorder, should be advised to use effective contraception. For women trying to conceive, discontinuation of simvastatin tablets should be considered. If pregnancy occurs, simvastatin tablets should be immediately discontinued.

Use in specific populations

Information about use of the drug by patients in specific populations, including pregnant women and nursing mothers, pediatric patients, and geriatric patients.
8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Severe renal impairment: patients should be started at 5 mg/day and be closely monitored. ( 2.4 , 8.6 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category X [See Contraindications (4) .] Simvastatin tablet is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Lipid lowering drugs offer no benefit during pregnancy, because cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives are needed for normal fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process, and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on long-term outcomes of primary hypercholesterolemia therapy. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of use with simvastatin tablets during pregnancy; however, there are rare reports of congenital anomalies in infants exposed to statins in utero . Animal reproduction studies of simvastatin in rats and rabbits showed no evidence of teratogenicity. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol or cholesterol derivatives are essential for fetal development. Because statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, simvastatin tablets may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If simvastatin tablet is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. There are rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to statins. In a review of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or another structurally related statin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed those expected in the general population. However, the study was only able to exclude a 3- to 4-fold increased risk of congenital anomalies over the background rate. In 89% of these cases, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued during the first trimester when pregnancy was identified. Simvastatin was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits at doses (25, 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) that resulted in 3 times the human exposure based on mg/m 2 surface area. However, in studies with another structurally-related statin, skeletal malformations were observed in rats and mice. Women of childbearing potential, who require treatment with simvastatin tablets for a lipid disorder, should be advised to use effective contraception. For women trying to conceive, discontinuation of simvastatin tablets should be considered. If pregnancy occurs, simvastatin tablets should be immediately discontinued. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether simvastatin is excreted in human milk. Because a small amount of another drug in this class is excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking simvastatin should not nurse their infants. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Contraindications (4) ] . 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of simvastatin in patients 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have been evaluated in a controlled clinical trial in adolescent boys and in girls who were at least 1 year post-menarche. Patients treated with simvastatin had an adverse reaction profile similar to that of patients treated with placebo. Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this population . In this limited controlled study, there was no significant effect on growth or sexual maturation in the adolescent boys or girls, or on menstrual cycle length in girls. [See Dosage and Administration (2.3) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) , Clinical Studies (14.2) .] Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on simvastatin therapy [see Contraindications (4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ]. Simvastatin has not been studied in patients younger than 10 years of age, nor in pre-menarchal girls. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 2,423 patients who received simvastatin tablets in Phase III clinical studies and the 10,269 patients in the Heart Protection Study who received simvastatin tablets, 363 (15%) and 5,366 (52%), respectively were ≥65 years old. In HPS, 615 (6%) were ≥75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Since advanced age (≥65 years) is a predisposing factor for myopathy, simvastatin tablets should be prescribed with caution in the elderly. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) .] A pharmacokinetic study with simvastatin showed the mean plasma level of statin activity to be approximately 45% higher in elderly patients between 70 to 78 years of age compared with patients between 18 to 30 years of age. In 4S, 1,021 (23%) of 4,444 patients were 65 or older. Lipid-lowering efficacy was at least as great in elderly patients compared with younger patients, and simvastatin tablets significantly reduced total mortality and CHD mortality in elderly patients with a history of CHD. In HPS, 52% of patients were elderly (4,891 patients 65 to 69 years and 5,806 patients 70 years or older). The relative risk reductions of CHD death, non-fatal MI, coronary and non-coronary revascularization procedures, and stroke were similar in older and younger patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. In HPS, among 32,145 patients entering the active run-in period, there were 2 cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis; these patients were aged 67 and 73. Of the 7 cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis among 10,269 patients allocated to simvastatin, 4 were aged 65 or more (at baseline), of whom one was over 75. There were no overall differences in safety between older and younger patients in either 4S or HPS. 8.6 Renal Impairment Caution should be exercised when simvastatin tablet is administered to patients with severe renal impairment. [See Dosage and Administration (2.4) .] 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Simvastatin tablet is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] .

How supplied

Information about the available dosage forms to which the labeling applies, and for which the manufacturer or distributor is responsible. This field ordinarily includes the strength of the dosage form (in metric units), the units in which the dosage form is available for prescribing, appropriate information to facilitate identification of the dosage forms (such as shape, color, coating, scoring, and National Drug Code), and special handling and storage condition information.
16. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Simvastatin Tablets 20 mg are brick red coloured oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed "S5" on one side and plain on other side. NDC 60760-005-30 BOTTLES OF 30 60760-005-90 BOTTLES OF 90 Simvastatin Tablets 40 mg are brick red coloured, oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed "S6" on one side and plain on other side. NDC 60760-006-30 BOTTLES OF 30 Simvastatin Tablets 80 mg are brick red coloured,capsule-shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with "SMV" on one side and "80" on the other side. NDC 60760-019-30 BOTTLE OF 30 Storage Store between 5 to 30° C (41 to 86° F). "Dispense in tight containers as defined in the USP"

Disclaimer: Do not rely on openFDA to make decisions regarding medical care. While we make every effort to ensure that data is accurate, you should assume all results are unvalidated. Source: OpenFDA, Healthporta Drugs API