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Ketorolac tromethamine - Prescription Drug Labeling

Product NDC Code 50090-2762
Drug Name

Ketorolac tromethamine

Type Generic
Pharm Class Anti-Inflammatory Agents,
Non-Steroidal [CS],
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor [EPC],
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors [MoA],
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug [EPC]
Active Ingredients
Ketorolac tromethamine 5 mg/ml
Route OPHTHALMIC
Dosage Form SOLUTION/ DROPS
RxCUI drug identifier 860107
Application Number ANDA076109
Labeler Name A-S Medication Solutions
Packages
Package NDC Code Description
50090-2762-0 1 bottle, dropper in 1 carton (50090-2762-0) > 5 ml in 1 bottle, dropper

Adverse reactions

Information about undesirable effects, reasonably associated with use of the drug, that may occur as part of the pharmacological action of the drug or may be unpredictable in its occurrence. Adverse reactions include those that occur with the drug, and if applicable, with drugs in the same pharmacologically active and chemically related class. There is considerable variation in the listing of adverse reactions. They may be categorized by organ system, by severity of reaction, by frequency, by toxicological mechanism, or by a combination of these.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most frequent adverse reactions reported by up to 40% of patients participating in clinical trials have been transient stinging and burning on instillation. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Apotex Corp. at 1-800-706-5575 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most frequent adverse reactions reported with the use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions have been transient stinging and burning on instillation. These reactions were reported by up to 40% of patients participating in clinical trials. Other adverse reactions occurring approximately 1 to 10% of the time during treatment with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions included allergic reactions, corneal edema, iritis, ocular inflammation, ocular irritation, superficial keratitis, and superficial ocular infections. Other adverse reactions reported rarely with the use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions included: corneal infiltrates, corneal ulcer, eye dryness, headaches, and visual disturbance (blurry vision). 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-marketing use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The reactions, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to topical ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% or a combination of these factors, include bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma, corneal erosion, corneal perforation, corneal thinning, and epithelial breakdown. [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.4 )] .

Clinical pharmacology

Information about the clinical pharmacology and actions of the drug in humans.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Ketorolac tromethamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which, when administered systemically, has demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activity. The mechanism of its action is thought to be due to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Two drops of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution instilled into the eyes of patients 12 hours and 1 hour prior to cataract extraction achieved a mean ketorolac concentration of 95 ng/mL in the aqueous humor of 8 of 9 eyes tested (range 40 to 170 ng/mL). One drop of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution was instilled into 1 eye and 1 drop of vehicle into the other eye TID in 26 healthy subjects. Five (5) of 26 subjects had detectable concentrations of ketorolac in their plasma (range 11 to 23 ng/mL) at Day 10 during topical ocular treatment. The range of concentrations following TID dosing of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution are approximately 4 to 8% of the steady state mean minimum plasma concentration observed following four times daily oral administration of 10 mg ketorolac in humans (290 ± 70 ng/mL).

Mechanism of action

Information about the established mechanism(s) of the drugÕs action in humans at various levels (for example receptor, membrane, tissue, organ, whole body). If the mechanism of action is not known, this field contains a statement about the lack of information.
12.1 Mechanism of Action Ketorolac tromethamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which, when administered systemically, has demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activity. The mechanism of its action is thought to be due to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Pharmacokinetics

Information about the clinically significant pharmacokinetics of a drug or active metabolites, for instance pertinent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion parameters.
12.3 Pharmacokinetics Two drops of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution instilled into the eyes of patients 12 hours and 1 hour prior to cataract extraction achieved a mean ketorolac concentration of 95 ng/mL in the aqueous humor of 8 of 9 eyes tested (range 40 to 170 ng/mL). One drop of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution was instilled into 1 eye and 1 drop of vehicle into the other eye TID in 26 healthy subjects. Five (5) of 26 subjects had detectable concentrations of ketorolac in their plasma (range 11 to 23 ng/mL) at Day 10 during topical ocular treatment. The range of concentrations following TID dosing of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution are approximately 4 to 8% of the steady state mean minimum plasma concentration observed following four times daily oral administration of 10 mg ketorolac in humans (290 ± 70 ng/mL).

Contraindications

Information about situations in which the drug product is contraindicated or should not be used because the risk of use clearly outweighs any possible benefit, including the type and nature of reactions that have been reported.
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Ketorolac tromethamine solution is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients in the formulation. Hypersensitivity to any component of this product. ( 4 )

Description

General information about the drug product, including the proprietary and established name of the drug, the type of dosage form and route of administration to which the label applies, qualitative and quantitative ingredient information, the pharmacologic or therapeutic class of the drug, and the chemical name and structural formula of the drug.
11 DESCRIPTION Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for ophthalmic use. Its chemical name is (±)-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1 H -pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid, compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1) and it has the following structure Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic solution is supplied as a sterile isotonic aqueous 0.5% solution, with a pH of 7.4. Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution is a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-) - ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine may exist in three crystal forms. All forms are equally soluble in water. The pKa of ketorolac is 3.5. This white to off-white crystalline substance discolors on prolonged exposure to light. The molecular weight of ketorolac tromethamine is 376.41. The osmolality of Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution is 290 mOsmol/kg. Each mL of Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution contains: Active: Ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%. Preservative: Benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Inactives: Edetate disodium dihydrate 0.1%; octoxynol 40; sodium chloride; hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH; and water for injection. Chemical Structure

Dosage and administration

Information about the drug product’s dosage and administration recommendations, including starting dose, dose range, titration regimens, and any other clinically sigificant information that affects dosing recommendations.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION One drop of ketorolac tromethamine should be applied to the affected eye(s) four times a day for relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. For the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine should be applied to the affected eye four times daily beginning 24 hours after cataract surgery and continuing through the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period. ( 2.1 ) 2.1 Recommended Dosing Patient Dosing The recommended dose of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution is one drop four times a day to the affected eye(s) for relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. For the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution should be applied to the affected eye four times daily beginning 24 hours after cataract surgery and continuing through the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period. 2.2 Use with Other Topical Medications Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution has been safely administered in conjunction with other ophthalmic medications such as antibiotics, alpha-agonists, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cycloplegics, and mydriatics. Drops should be administered at least 5 minutes apart.

Dosage forms and strengths

Information about all available dosage forms and strengths for the drug product to which the labeling applies. This field may contain descriptions of product appearance.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% is supplied sterile in white opaque LDPE plastic bottles with white opaque droppers with grey opaque ophthalmic HDPE plastic caps as follows 11 mL size bottle filled with 5 mL or 10 mL ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5%. Ophthalmic solution containing 5 mg/mL ketorolac tromethamine. ( 3 ) 11 mL size bottle filled with 5 mL or 10 mL ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5%.

Indications and usage

A statement of each of the drug products indications for use, such as for the treatment, prevention, mitigation, cure, or diagnosis of a disease or condition, or of a manifestation of a recognized disease or condition, or for the relief of symptoms associated with a recognized disease or condition. This field may also describe any relevant limitations of use.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution is indicated for the temporary relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution is also indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution is a nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory indicated for: The treatment of inflammation following cataract surgery. The temporary relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis ( 1 ).

Spl product data elements

Usually a list of ingredients in a drug product.
Ketorolac Tromethamine ketorolac tromethamine KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE KETOROLAC EDETATE DISODIUM OCTOXYNOL-40 WATER SODIUM CHLORIDE BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM HYDROXIDE HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Carcinogenesis and mutagenesis and impairment of fertility

Information about carcinogenic, mutagenic, or fertility impairment potential revealed by studies in animals. Information from human data about such potential is part of the warnings field.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Ketorolac tromethamine was not carcinogenic in either rats given up to 5 mg/kg/day orally for 24 months or in mice given 2 mg/kg/day orally for 18 months. These doses are approximately 125 times and 50 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose given as QID for itching to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Ketorolac tromethamine was not mutagenic in vitro in the Ames assay or in forward mutation assays. Similarly, it did not result in an in vitro increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis or an in vivo increase in chromosome breakage in mice. However, ketorolac tromethamine did result in an increased incidence in chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Ketorolac tromethamine did not impair fertility when administered orally to male and female rats at doses up to 9 mg/kg/day and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are respectively 225 and 400 times higher than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose.

Nonclinical toxicology

Information about toxicology in non-human subjects.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Ketorolac tromethamine was not carcinogenic in either rats given up to 5 mg/kg/day orally for 24 months or in mice given 2 mg/kg/day orally for 18 months. These doses are approximately 125 times and 50 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose given as QID for itching to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Ketorolac tromethamine was not mutagenic in vitro in the Ames assay or in forward mutation assays. Similarly, it did not result in an in vitro increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis or an in vivo increase in chromosome breakage in mice. However, ketorolac tromethamine did result in an increased incidence in chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Ketorolac tromethamine did not impair fertility when administered orally to male and female rats at doses up to 9 mg/kg/day and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are respectively 225 and 400 times higher than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose.

Package label principal display panel

The content of the principal display panel of the product package, usually including the product’s name, dosage forms, and other key information about the drug product.
ketorolac tromethamine Label Image

ketorolac tromethamine: Information for patients

Information necessary for patients to use the drug safely and effectively, such as precautions concerning driving or the concomitant use of other substances that may have harmful additive effects.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION 17.1 Slow or Delayed Healing Patients should be informed of the possibility that slow or delayed healing may occur while using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 17.2 Avoiding Contamination of the Product Patients should be instructed to avoid allowing the tip of the bottle to contact the eye or surrounding structures because this could cause the tip to become contaminated by common bacteria known to cause ocular infections. Serious damage to the eye and subsequent loss of vision may result from using contaminated solutions. Also, to avoid the potential for cross-contamination, the patient should be advised to use one bottle for each eye following bilateral ocular surgery. The use of the same bottle of topical eye drops for both eyes following bilateral ocular surgery is not recommended. 17.3 Contact Lens Wear Patients should be advised that ketorolac tromethamine solution should not be administered while wearing contact lenses. 17.4 Intercurrent Ocular Conditions Patients should be advised that if they develop an intercurrent ocular condition (e.g., trauma or infection) or have ocular surgery, they should immediately seek their physician’s advice concerning the continued use of ketorolac tromethamine. 17.5 Concomitant Topical Ocular Therapy Patients should be advised that if more than one topical ophthalmic medication is being used, the medicines should be administered at least 5 minutes apart. Rx only. Apotex Inc. Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% Manufactured by: Manufactured for: Apotex Inc. Apotex Corp. Toronto, Ontario Weston, FL Canada M9L 1T9 33326 October 2015
Manufactured by:Manufactured for:
Apotex Inc.Apotex Corp.
Toronto, OntarioWeston, FL
Canada M9L 1T933326

Clinical studies

This field may contain references to clinical studies in place of detailed discussion in other sections of the labeling.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES Two controlled clinical studies showed that ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution was significantly more effective than its vehicle in relieving ocular itching caused by seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Two controlled clinical studies showed that patients treated for two weeks with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution were less likely to have measurable signs of inflammation (cell and flare) than patients treated with its vehicle. Results from clinical studies indicate that ketorolac tromethamine has no significant effect upon intraocular pressure; however, changes in intraocular pressure may occur following cataract surgery.

Geriatric use

Information about any limitations on any geriatric indications, needs for specific monitoring, hazards associated with use of the drug in the geriatric population.
8.5 Geriatric Use No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.

Nursing mothers

Information about excretion of the drug in human milk and effects on the nursing infant, including pertinent adverse effects observed in animal offspring.
8.3 Nursing Mothers Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ketorolac tromethamine is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric use

Information about any limitations on any pediatric indications, needs for specific monitoring, hazards associated with use of the drug in any subsets of the pediatric population (such as neonates, infants, children, or adolescents), differences between pediatric and adult responses to the drug, and other information related to the safe and effective pediatric use of the drug.
8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 2 have not been established.

Pregnancy

Information about effects the drug may have on pregnant women or on a fetus. This field may be ommitted if the drug is not absorbed systemically and the drug is not known to have a potential for indirect harm to the fetus. It may contain information about the established pregnancy category classification for the drug. (That information is nominally listed in the teratogenic_effects field, but may be listed here instead.)
8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C Pregnancy Category C: Ketorolac tromethamine, administered during organogenesis, was not teratogenic in rabbits and rats at oral doses of 3.6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 100 times and 250 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose of 2 mg (5 mg/mL x 0.05 mL/drop, x 4 drops x 2 eyes) to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Additionally, when administered to rats after Day 17 of gestation at oral doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 40 times the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose), ketorolac tromethamine resulted in dystocia and increased pup mortality. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ketorolac tromethamine solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Because of the known effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), the use of ketorolac tromethamine solution solution during late pregnancy should be avoided.

Teratogenic effects

Pregnancy category A: Adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy, and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters. Pregnancy category B: Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Pregnancy category C: Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, and the benefits from the use of the drug in pregnant women may be acceptable despite its potential risks. Pregnancy category D: There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but the potential benefits from the use of the drug in pregnant women may be acceptable despite its potential risks (for example, if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective). Pregnancy category X: Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities or there is positive evidence of fetal risk based on adverse reaction reports from investigational or marketing experience, or both, and the risk of the use of the drug in a pregnant woman clearly outweighs any possible benefit (for example, safer drugs or other forms of therapy are available).
Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C Pregnancy Category C: Ketorolac tromethamine, administered during organogenesis, was not teratogenic in rabbits and rats at oral doses of 3.6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 100 times and 250 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose of 2 mg (5 mg/mL x 0.05 mL/drop, x 4 drops x 2 eyes) to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Additionally, when administered to rats after Day 17 of gestation at oral doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 40 times the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose), ketorolac tromethamine resulted in dystocia and increased pup mortality. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ketorolac tromethamine solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Use in specific populations

Information about use of the drug by patients in specific populations, including pregnant women and nursing mothers, pediatric patients, and geriatric patients.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C Pregnancy Category C: Ketorolac tromethamine, administered during organogenesis, was not teratogenic in rabbits and rats at oral doses of 3.6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 100 times and 250 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose of 2 mg (5 mg/mL x 0.05 mL/drop, x 4 drops x 2 eyes) to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Additionally, when administered to rats after Day 17 of gestation at oral doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 40 times the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose), ketorolac tromethamine resulted in dystocia and increased pup mortality. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ketorolac tromethamine solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Because of the known effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), the use of ketorolac tromethamine solution solution during late pregnancy should be avoided. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ketorolac tromethamine is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 2 have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.

How supplied

Information about the available dosage forms to which the labeling applies, and for which the manufacturer or distributor is responsible. This field ordinarily includes the strength of the dosage form (in metric units), the units in which the dosage form is available for prescribing, appropriate information to facilitate identification of the dosage forms (such as shape, color, coating, scoring, and National Drug Code), and special handling and storage condition information.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Product: 50090-2762 NDC: 50090-2762-0 5 mL in a BOTTLE, DROPPER / 1 in a CARTON

Disclaimer: Do not rely on openFDA to make decisions regarding medical care. While we make every effort to ensure that data is accurate, you should assume all results are unvalidated. Source: OpenFDA, Healthporta Drugs API